US Invasion of the Dominican Republic 1916

The US military declared martial law for the Dominican Republic on November 29, 1916, during the US invasion and occupation of the island. (Yes, really.) The undocumented and uninvited US Marines landed to “protect American interests”, which meant the island’s proximity to the Panama Canal. (The Panama Canal opened in 1914 with substantial financial investment from the US, along with a few invasions and support for revolutions, a bit of “election interference”.) The Marine forces continued to occupy the sovereign nation until 1924.  In the official history of the event, no mention is made as to whether the US Marines ever obtained proper documents or visas from the Dominican immigration authorities.

Battle of Carrizal 1916

On June 21, 1916, US Army forces under the orders of General John J. Pershing crossed the border into the sovereign Mexican nation and attacked the Mexican Army.  The US soldiers did not have visas, and were fighting as illegal aliens.  The troops were pursuing the revolutionary leader Pancho Villa, in a punitive action in response to Villa’s raid in the US.  When US troops could not locate Villa, they decided to fight with the Mexican Army (why not, they were in the neighborhood?).  Thus began the bloody Battle of Carrizal at Chihuahua, Mexico.  Understandably, the Mexican government did not appreciate this incident.  With World War I on the horizon, the US did not want a war on a second front, and eventually settled with the Mexicans.

El 21 de junio de 1916, las fuerzas del Ejército de Estados Unidos bajo las órdenes del general John J. Pershing cruzó la frontera hacia la nación mexicana soberano y atacó al Ejército Mexicano. Los soldados estadounidenses no tienen visas, y luchaban como extranjeros ilegales. Las tropas perseguían el líder revolucionario Pancho Villa, en una acción punitiva en respuesta a la incursión de Villa en los EE.UU.. Cuando las tropas de Estados Unidos no ha podido localizar Villa, decidieron luchar con el ejército mexicano. Así comenzó la sangrienta Batalla de Carrizal en Chihuahua, México. Es comprensible que el gobierno mexicano no apreciar este incidente. Con la Segunda Guerra Mundial en el horizonte, los EE.UU. no quería una guerra en un segundo frente, y finalmente se estableció con los mexicanos.

Raul Hector Castro, Governor of Arizona

Happy Birthday to Raul Hector Castro, born June 12, 1916.  Castro was the first Mexican-born American elected as Governor of Arizona.  Castro graduated from Northern Arizona University in 1939 and later earned his JD from the University of Arizona Law College.  Castro received Presidential appointments to serve as Ambassador to El Salvador, Bolivia, and Argentina.  Castro is now the US’ oldest living governor.  He counsels students at his alma mater, “I am proud of Northern Arizona University, and am always encouraging students to go there for school. I love it dearly.”

Feliz cumpleaños a Raúl Héctor Castro, llevado 12 de junio de 1916. Castro fue el primer mexicano-estadounidense de origen elegido como gobernador de Arizona. Castro se graduó de la Universidad del Norte de Arizona en 1939 y más tarde obtuvo su Doctorado en Leyes de la Universidad de Arizona Facultad de Derecho. Castro recibió nombramientos presidenciales para servir como embajador en El Salvador, Bolivia y Argentina. Castro es ahora más antigua de los EE.UU. “gobernador vida. Aconseja a los estudiantes en su alma mater, “Me siento orgulloso de Northern Arizona University, y siempre estoy alentando a los estudiantes a ir a la escuela. Me quiero mucho”.

Lydia 1916

Before Selena and J-Lo were known only by their first names, there was Lydia.  May 21, 1916 Lydia Mendoza was born on May 21, 1916 in Houston, Texas.  Accompanied by her 12 string guitar, Lydia was a pioneer of the Tejano music movement.  She recorded more than 200 songs in the first 6 years of her career and over 800 songs by the end of her 50 year career.  Lydia sang for US President Jimmy Carter’s inauguration in 1977.  She received the National Medal of the Arts in 1999.  President Bill Clinton praised her as “the first rural American woman performer to garner a large following throughout Latin America.”

Another Invasion of Mexico (1916)

On March 15, 1916, President Woodrow Wilson sent 4,800 US troops across the US – Mexican border in pursuit of Mexican revolutionary leader, Pancho Villa.  The US Troops were undocumented and uninvited.  The incident occurred during the Mexican Revolution, and was in retaliation for Villa’s raids in New Mexico and the reported killing of sixteen employees of ASARCO, a mining company based in Tucson, Arizona.   The US government backed Villa’s rival, Venustiano Carranza, in another instance of election interference.